Infancy: 0-2 years
Childhood: 3-8 years
Adolescence: 9-18 years
Early Adulthood: 19-45 years
Middle Adulthood: 45-65 years
Later adulthood: 65+ years
Pituitary gland signal to ovaries, release ovum
Ovum travels down fallopian tubes (24 hours until it dies) can be fertilised From ejaculation sperm reaches & enters egg.
Nuclei fuse together (½ genes mum, ½ genes dad)
Fertilised egg travels to swelled/thickened lining of uterus
Neonate: newborn baby – helpless, not control movement or care for self
Cephalo-Caudal development: from ‘head-to-tail’, organs, limbs, bones
Bones and limbs develop quickest during infancy (after organs)
Epiphyses: plates of cartilage between bone ends + shafts still in ossification
Ossification: epiphyses into bone. Bone no longer grows
Puberty: girls grow, then males. Reproductive organs develop, hormones – menstrual cycle control. Endocrine gland hormones (pregnancy, birth, breastfeeding)
Endocrine Glands: reproduce hormones in adolescence; circulate body in blood stream, controlling bodily function
Thymus Gland: Associated with immune system
Continuous weight gain in middle adulthood: maintain eating patterns, reduce physical activity and increase in fat cells.
Conception to Birth
Ovulation – pituitary gland signal to ovary to release ovum, travel down fallopian tubes
Fertilisation – sperm released at orgasm travel through cervix, uterus to ovum in fallopian tube. Sperm enters, nuclei fuse. ½ DNA mum/ ½ dad (Sex determined) zygote formed.
Zygote to Embryo – zygote divide by mitosis, form human, placenta and amnion. First 8 weeks zygote becomes embryo (all major organs formed, harmful substances can harm developmental period)
Embryo to foetus – next 32 weeks, embryo becomes foetus + continues development
Birth – contractions + labour, neonate relies on parent for survival (no bladder control, no movement control, only absorb milk in digestive system)
Key aspects of development
Infancy (0-2): many PHYSICAL developments (walking, talking, potty training) Childhood (3-8): develop differing skills, many INTELLECTUAL Adolescence (9-18): huge changes in BODY this stage
Early adulthood (19-45): EMOTIONAL development apparent
Middle adulthood (45-65): SOCIAL skills key development
Later adulthood (65+): differences in ALL developmental areas apparent
Rooting reflex: stimulus – stroking of face, response – baby turns head toward touch
Suckling reflex: stimulus – something in/near mouth, response – latches on + suckle object
Moro or Startle reflex: stimulus – shock factor, response – make self as big as possible, jumps
Grasp reflex: stimuli – pressure on palm/sole, response – curl fingers/toes around object (grasps)
Walking reflex: stimuli – placed upright on firm surface, response – lifts legs in walking positions
Physical development in infancy
By 6 months: lies on back, head to one side.
Legs pulled up to sit.
Primitive reflexes. head control still unsteady.
Grasps hand in tight fist.
Grasps objects placed on palm.
Head + eyes move together. kicks legs + waves arms.
Turns when on front.
Watches own hand movements.
Hold rattle for few seconds.
use arms to support laying on stomach.
Turns from back to side.
Holds onto/shakes small objects. pushes head/neck/chest off floor when on front. Rolls over.
Pass toy from hand to hand.
By twelve months: sits alone w/out support.
Reaches for toys when sat.
Pokes at small items.
Release by drop.
Takes/holds small bricks – each hand. puts things in box (when shown).
Clicks 2 bricks together.
Starts showing hand preference.
Picks tiny objects off floor.
Holds up (with help).
Starts to walk holding on.
By Eighteen months: walks alone.
Pushes/pulls toys when walking....
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