revision notes unit 1 health and social care growth and development

Topics: Sociology, Self, Identity Pages: 26 (5087 words) Published: December 2, 2013
Infancy: 0-2 years
Childhood: 3-8 years
Adolescence: 9-18 years
Early Adulthood: 19-45 years
Middle Adulthood: 45-65 years
Later adulthood: 65+ years
Conception
Pituitary gland signal to ovaries, release ovum
Ovum travels down fallopian tubes (24 hours until it dies) can be fertilised From ejaculation sperm reaches & enters egg.
Nuclei fuse together (½ genes mum, ½ genes dad)
Fertilised egg travels to swelled/thickened lining of uterus

Neonate: newborn baby – helpless, not control movement or care for self

Cephalo-Caudal development: from ‘head-to-tail’, organs, limbs, bones

Bones and limbs develop quickest during infancy (after organs)

Epiphyses: plates of cartilage between bone ends + shafts still in ossification

Ossification: epiphyses into bone. Bone no longer grows

Puberty: girls grow, then males. Reproductive organs develop, hormones – menstrual cycle control. Endocrine gland hormones (pregnancy, birth, breastfeeding)

Endocrine Glands: reproduce hormones in adolescence; circulate body in blood stream, controlling bodily function

Thymus Gland: Associated with immune system

Continuous weight gain in middle adulthood: maintain eating patterns, reduce physical activity and increase in fat cells.

Conception to Birth
Ovulation – pituitary gland signal to ovary to release ovum, travel down fallopian tubes

Fertilisation – sperm released at orgasm travel through cervix, uterus to ovum in fallopian tube. Sperm enters, nuclei fuse. ½ DNA mum/ ½ dad (Sex determined) zygote formed.

Zygote to Embryo – zygote divide by mitosis, form human, placenta and amnion. First 8 weeks zygote becomes embryo (all major organs formed, harmful substances can harm developmental period)

Embryo to foetus – next 32 weeks, embryo becomes foetus + continues development

Birth – contractions + labour, neonate relies on parent for survival (no bladder control, no movement control, only absorb milk in digestive system)

Key aspects of development
Infancy (0-2): many PHYSICAL developments (walking, talking, potty training) Childhood (3-8): develop differing skills, many INTELLECTUAL Adolescence (9-18): huge changes in BODY this stage
Early adulthood (19-45): EMOTIONAL development apparent
Middle adulthood (45-65): SOCIAL skills key development
Later adulthood (65+): differences in ALL developmental areas apparent

Primitive Reflexes
Rooting reflex: stimulus – stroking of face, response – baby turns head toward touch

Suckling reflex: stimulus – something in/near mouth, response – latches on + suckle object

Moro or Startle reflex: stimulus – shock factor, response – make self as big as possible, jumps

Grasp reflex: stimuli – pressure on palm/sole, response – curl fingers/toes around object (grasps)

Walking reflex: stimuli – placed upright on firm surface, response – lifts legs in walking positions

Physical development in infancy
By 6 months: lies on back, head to one side.Legs pulled up to sit.Primitive reflexes. head control still unsteady.Grasps hand in tight fist.
Grasps objects placed on palm.Head + eyes move together. kicks legs + waves arms.Turns when on front. Lifts head. Watches own hand movements.
Hold rattle for few seconds.
use arms to support laying on stomach. Turns from back to side. Holds onto/shakes small objects. pushes head/neck/chest off floor when on front. Rolls over. Pass toy from hand to hand. Sits supported.

By twelve months: sits alone w/out support. Reaches for toys when sat.
Crawl/shuffle.Pokes at small items. Lifts block.Release by drop. Takes/holds small bricks – each hand. puts things in box (when shown). Clicks 2 bricks together.
Starts showing hand preference. Picks tiny objects off floor.
Holds up (with help). Self-feeds.Crawls/shuffles.
Starts to walk holding on. Stands alone.

By Eighteen months: walks alone.Pushes/pulls toys when walking....
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