Asses the view, that working class children underachieve because they are culturally deprived.
Middle class children have a higher tendency of achieving more than pupils of the working class. A few explanations pay attention on the external factors outside school. This includes cultural deprivation – working class pupils are portrayed as having a lack of correct attitude, values, language and knowledge for educational success. Whilst material deprivation means that working class pupils are most likely to have poorer diets, health and housing and their parents are less able to meet the hidden costs of schooling. The middle class have mote cultural capital – they have a better advantage of their choices within the marketised education system. There are three main aspects to cultural deprivation. The first is intellectual development; theorists argue that many working class homes lack things such as books, educational toys and activities which would help to stimulate intellectual development. Douglas (1964) found that pupils of the working class scored lower on a test of ability than those of the middle class. He argued that because working class parents are likely to be less supportive of their child’s intellectual development this has an impact on them. This could then lead to underachievement as it would mean the child is always behind. Secondly, Bernstein (1975) looked at the difference in language between working class and middle class students. He identified that language can be categorised into two types of speech codes. This highlights the differences between both the working and middle class. The restricted code was typically used by those of the working class. It consisted of a limited vocabulary and is based on use of short, often unfinished, grammatically simple sentences. Their speech is predictable and sometimes consists of single words and hand gestures. The restricted code is context bound so the speaker makes the assumption that the listener...
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