Class structures existed in a simplified form in pre-agricultural societies, but became much more complex and established following the establishment of permanent agriculture-based civilizations with a food surplus. Classism started to practice around 18th century
Institutional versus personal classism
The term classism can refer to personal prejudice against 'lower' or 'upper' classes as well as to institutional classism, just as the term racism can refer either strictly to personal bigotry or to institutional racism. The former has been defined as "the ways in which conscious or unconscious classism is manifest in the various institutions of our society."
The term "interpersonal" is sometimes used in place of "personal" as in, "institutional classism (versus) interpersonal classism.", and terms such as "attitude" or "attitudinal" may replaced "interpersonal" as contrasting with institutional classism, as in the Association of Magazine Media's definition of classism as "any attitude or institutional practice which subordinates people due to income, occupation, education and/or their economic condition."
Classism is also sometimes broken down into more than two categories, as in "personal, institutional and cultural" classism.
Terms associated with personal or attitudinal classism include "white trash", "little men" or "little people," "trailer trash", "the unwashed masses", "the great unwashed", "moochers," "oiks", "proles" or Proletariat and "bludgers". In earlier historical periods, classist terms and phrases such as hoi polloi or plebs, which are "derogatory of the lower classes," were more commonly used than they are today.
Accusations of classism
There is disagreement[by whom?] over what degree modern industrialized societies are economically stratified into discernible classes. There is also often disagreement over matters of understanding, such as whether negative treatment is due to...
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4.^ Young, Serinity; Katie Cannon (1999). Serinity Young, ed. Encyclopedia of Women and World Religion (Print). USA: Macmillan. p. 181. ISBN 0028648609. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
5.^ Classism Definitions
6.^ Langhout, Regina Day; Rosselli, Francine; Feinstein, Jonathan (October 1835), Assessing Classism in Academic Settings, The Review of Higher Education 30 (2): 145–184
Hooks, Bell. Where we stand: class matters. New York & London: Routledge, 2000
Homan, Jacqueline S. Classism For Dimwits. Pennsylvania: Elf Books, 2007/2009
Beegle, Donna M. See Poverty - Be the Difference, 2001
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