AN214: Anthropology of India:
Discuss the way urban middle-class identities have been debated in relation to changing kinship and consumption patterns with reference to the ethnographies you read.
"Materialism is the new karma". (Pavan K Varma, 2005)
Whilst numerical estimates of the Indian middle classes vary drastically, media images contribute to their portrayal as affluent consumers- participants in the IT boom in urban centres such as Hyderabad and those revelling in India's status as a call centre "superpower", particularly thought to symbolise a new urban middle-class. Varma's quote encapsulates the astonishing effect mass culture is thought to have had upon Indian identity, especially those who occupy this middle ground of consumption. This spectrum ranges from the lower middle-class youth, such as the aforementioned call-centre workers whose parents often experience a very different lifestyle, to the upper middle classes whose educational heritage has enabled them to maintain their class status over a longer period. Hence it is clear that the notion of an "urban middle class" within the Indian context is uniquely problematic, being internally differentiated- encompassing great variety in factors such as culture, language and religious belief, while of course attempting to reconcile the existence of the caste system as a further, but importantly distinctive form of hierarchy to class. As Fernandes notes, the very question of defining what Beteille termed the "most polymorphous middle class in the world", itself represents a site of political debate in both academic and public discourses. Additionally there is a marked transition between what is considered the "old middle-classes" and the "new middle-class." Whereas the former has its origins in the "colonial encounter", the latter, since liberalisation policies initiated by Rajiv Gandhi in the 1980s came to fruition, has become increasingly defined by its consumption patterns, most apparent in an era of a global economy. Fernandes writes that this overwhelming focus on consumption has somewhat neglected the impact of structural socioeconomic changes in the middle classes.(Fernandes, 2000). At various points these intersect with shifting economic conditions, such as kinship changes affecting the upwardly mobile, however they are not always resultant of the status jockeying of these newly prosperous classes. (Vatuk, 1972). Thus while the transformative effects of liberalisation may appear to have directly visible effects upon the restructured labour market, in the context of family life- locale specificities and historical factors, as well as the advent of urbanity must all be considered. For instance a shift in the values of the Malayali middle-classes can be partially attributed to the implementation of colonial legislation instigating the abolition of polygamous practices such as the Marumakkathayam system of inheritance amongst Nayar communities, whilst increasing nationalist sentiment contributed to the diminishing importance of unique matrilineal forms in Kerala in favour of the patrilineal inheritance that prevailed as a middle class norm in the rest of India. (Arunima, 2003). Note that I have made no distinction between "Nayar castes" and "a Malayali middle class", necessitating the clarification of two dimensions: reconciling class with the alternative hierarchical structure of caste; and related to this how the concept of a middle class has changed over time. From this I will discuss how shifting values in India have created an affirmatively dynamic middle class. The Indian notion of caste is of something you are born into- I am considered a Nayar because my mother is whereas in comparison one notes the relative mutability of class, deriving more directly from economic and social standing, to become one of the most potent idioms of identity, rank and political power in India. (Dickey, 2000). Being at the apex of the caste hierarchy Brahmins...
Bibliography: G. Arunima, There Comes Papa: Colonialism and the Transformation of Matriliny in Kerala, Malabar c.1850-1940 (2003)
S. Dickey, Permeable Homes: Domestic Service, Household Space, and the Vulnerability of Class boundaries in India. American Ethnologist, vol 27 no 2 (2000)
L. Fernandes, Nationalizing 'the Global ': Media Images, Cultural Politics and the Middle-Class in India. Media, Culture & Society, vol 22, no 5 (2000)
J. Harriss, The Great Tradition Globalizes: Reflections on Two Studies of "The Industrial Leaders" of Madras. Modern Asian Studies, vol 37, no 2 (2003) pp 327-362.
W. Mazzarella, Shovelling Smoke: Advertising and Globalization in Contemporary India (2003)
S.Nanda, Arranging a Marriage in India (1992)
F. Osella and C. Osella, Social Mobility in Kerala (2000) Chapter 4
Michael Reder (Editor), Conversations with Salman Rushdie (2000)
S. Tharoor, Charlis and I in India: from Midnight to the Millennium (1997)
P. Varma, Being Indian: The Truth about Why the 21st Century Will Be India 's (2005)
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