Explain briefly what is meant by the term ‘elaborated speech code’ . Elaborate speech code is usually associated with middle-class, well educated people. It uses a wide variety of vocabulary, is more context based, uses grammatically complex sentences, communicates abstract ideas and is mostly context-free.
Identify three policies that governments have introduced to compensate for material and cultural disadvantage, apart from Educational Priority Areas. Compensatory education is a policy designed in order to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation, by providing resources to communities as well as schools in deprived areas. An example of a compensatory education programme is Operation Head Start in the United States, which is one of the best known examples of such programmes. Operation Head Start focuses on pre-school ‘planned enrichment’ education in poorer areas, which was introduced in the 1960s. Their aim was to develop children’s learning skills and instil achievement motivation. This included tasks such as: setting up nursery classes, home visits by health visitors and educational psychologists, improving parenting skills and the creation of intensive learning programmes for deprived children. Sesame Street, the popular TV programme, was initially created as part of Head Start, in order to reach young children and reflecting the values and attitudes needed for educational success; such as the importance of general knowledge, literacy and numeracy. In the UK, there have been several compensatory education programmes over the years, such as the Education Priority Areas that were created in the 1960s, Education Action Zones, which were introduced in the 1960s, and more recently, with the launch in 2000, comes Sure Start. Sure Start is a nationwide programme aimed at pre-school children as well as their parents. However, it also has non-educational aims, such as improving children’s health. Sure Start was introduced by the British Government in...
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