Grading System

Topics: Literature, History of literature, Literary criticism Pages: 11 (3477 words) Published: July 22, 2013
Literature is derived from the word “littera” which means letter. Any printed material, written within a book, magazine or pamphlet is also called literature. It includes faithful reproduction of man’s manifold experiences blended into one harmonious expression, man’s love, grieves, thought s and aspirations coached in beautiful language. It is sometimes called, a story of man. It is a language in use that provides insights and intellectual stimulation to the reader. As one explores literature, he likewise discovers the beauty of language. Literature is a product of a particular culture that concretizes man’s array of values, emotions, actions and ideas. It is therefore a creation of human experience that tells about their world. It is an art that reflects the works of imagination, aesthetics, and creative writing which distinguished for the beauty of style or expression as in fiction, poetry, essay, or drama, in distinction from scientific treatises and works which contain positive knowledge. Why do we have to study literature?

A. to better appreciate our literary heritage
B. to trace the rich heritage of ideas handed down to us by the fore fathers C. to understand the great and noble tradition of the different races of the world Literary Standards
1. Universality- appeals to everyone, regardless of culture, race, sex and time which are all considered significant 2. Artistry- has an aesthetic appeal and thus possesses a sense of beauty 3. Intellectual Value- stimulates critical thinking that enriches mental processes of abstract and reasoning, making man realize the fundamental truths of life and its nature 4. Suggestiveness- unravels and conjures man’s emotional power to define symbolism, nuances, implied meanings, images and messages, giving and evoking visions above and beyond the plane of ordinary life and experience 5. Spiritual Value- elevates the spirit and the soul and thus has the power to motivate and inspire, drawn from the suggested morals or lessons of the different literary genres. 6. Permanence- endures across time and draws out the time factor: timeliness, occurring at a particular time, and timelessness, remaining invariable throughout the time 7. Style- presents peculiar way on how man sees life as evidenced by the formation of his ideas, forms, structures and expressions which are marked by their memorable substance Types of Literature

A. Prose-
1. Novel- long narrative divided into chapters. The events are taken from true to life stories 2. Short story- a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression 3. Play- presented on stage divided into acts and each act has many scenes. 4. Legends- these are fictions, narratives usually about origin 5. Fables- stories about animals and inanimate things that speak and act like people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of the children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. 6. Anecdotes- products of writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out the lesson to the reader. 7. Essay- expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event- best example is the editorial page of a news paper. 8. Biography- deals with the life of a person which maybe about himself of than of others. B. POETRY

1. Narrative
a. Epic- an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control
a. Illiad and Odyssey- Greece
b. Beowulf- England
c. Gilgamesh-Iraq
b. Tales- stories about the supernatural beings
c. Ballads- short poems, adapted for singing, simple in plot and metrical structure 2. LYRIC- type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of poet a. Folksongs- short poems intended to be sung

b. Sonnet- 14 line poem dealing with emotions, feelings, or ideas c. Elegy- poem for the dead
d. Ode- poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity on a certain thing or object e. Psalms- songs praising God and containing a philosophy of life

World Literature
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