INDIAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND VALUES & ETHICS IN BUSINESS :
NATURE AND TYPES OF INDIAN SOCIETY :
Tribal Society :
The tribals are economically, educationally and politically backward as compared to the non-tribals. One scholar has called tribal people “Backward Hindus”. However there is a sizable number of Tribals who are Christian.
The tribes of India before independence were considered animistic by the by religion Census authorities. Distinction was made between those who were Hindu and those who followed their own religion. There is no uniform pattern of religion among the tribal peoples of India.
Mandelbaum mentions eight characteristics of Indian tribes: (i) kinship as an instrument of social bonds, (ii) lack of hierarchy among individuals and groups, (iii) absence of strong, complex, formal organizations, (iv) communitarian basis on land holding, (v) segmentary character, (vi) little value for surplus accumulation. (vii) lack of distinction between form and substance of religion, (viii) a different Socio-psychological make-up for enjoying life.
The present popular meaning of a tribe in India is a category of people, included in the list of the scheduled tribes : Tribal populations are poor, are relatively isolated and closed groups, forming homogeneous units of production and consumption. Being economically backward, they have been exploited by the non-tribals.
After independence the policy of protection and development for the population identified as tribe has been made into a constitutional obligation. A list of tribes was adopted for this purpose which had 212 names which was modified later by presidential orders. In 1971, the list contained 527 names. The people who have been listed in the constitution are called scheduled tribes. This is the administrative concept of a tribe. Geographical Distribution : On the basis of ecology, it is possible to group tribes into five distinct regions – Himalayan region (with tribes like the Gaddi, the Naga etc.) Middle India (with tribes like the Munda, Gonds the Santal etc.) Western India (with tribes like the Bhil, the Grasia etc.) South India region (with tribes like the Toda, the Chenchu etc.) and the Islands region (with tribes like the Onge in the Bay of Bengal, the Minicoyans in Arabian Sea).
Agrarian Society : People belonging to scheduled castes are economically dependent on agriculture and are distributed in rural & Semi-urban areas of our country.
Industrial Society :
Linguistic Groups : In India population belongs to multiple linguistic Groups. Sanskrit has influenced most of the languages.
Modern industry came to India in the 19th Century after the Industrial Revolution of Europe and was allied with a modern system of education sponsored by an alien power. Since then profound changes have taken place regarding the social stratification of people of our country. There was a change in values; people come to accept western values known as westernization in opposition to the traditional value called sanskritization. Since the Industrial Revolution, urbanization and industrialization have moved in great pace.
Features of Industrial Society : The industrial society has the following features :
Norm and social role conflicts : The diversity of social life is the most important characteristic of urban industrial life. It springs from the size, density and heterogeneity of the population, extreme specialization of the various occupations and the class structure existing in the larger communities. The latter factors in turn, generally result in divergent group norms and values and conflicting social roles. In modern industrial societies, the ends sought by different groups are so divergent that individuals often do not know in many areas of life exactly what are the norms and behavioral standards, and appropriate social roles.
Rapid social and cultural change : Rapid social and cultural change, disregard for the...
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