Modern History

Topics: Social class, Bourgeoisie, Working class Pages: 9 (2060 words) Published: March 3, 2012
Modern History: general information
Source: something that provides detail on a time period, place, event or person. Primary: something that was produced during the time period being studied. Secondary: something that was produced after the time period being studied. NOCMARPU:

Nature: what is the source?
Origin: who produced the source? When and where was the source produced? Content: what information is learnt from the source?
Motive: why was the source produced? Is there a reason/ for something being created? Audience: who was the intended audience?
Reliability: can the source be trusted when investigation a particular issues? Can information be supported by other historical sources? Does the source contain bias? Perspective: what perspective can this source offer? Who is the source from? What view do they present? What social class or position of authority is being shown? Usefulness: can the source be used to investigate an element from the past? Can some parts be used and other can be omitted? Types:

Factually: is the source presenting the fact/ info in an accurate manner? If so what? Evidence: is the source showing evidence of something?

The French Revolution
Social features:
Feudalism: a practice of organising a society where a king owned all land, except ad that is owned by the church. This land is given to nobles in return for loyalty, land was then leased to peasants how paid taxes.

Social Mobility: The ability to move between classes. A person inherits their position at birth and is almost impossible for most to move out of their social class.

Church: owned the best agricultural land, were exempt from paying taxes, and relied on taxes from peasants for money.

Nobility: People who inherit their position in society by virtue of their birth. Owned land and paid no taxes. The nobles were the class that lived off the labour of others, and served no purpose to the economy.

Bourgeoisie: middle class better educated than upper classes in some cases. Resented restrictions placed on their freedoms and ability to trade. Wanted equal rights. Paid taxes to nobles and church.

Proletariat: Urban working class, hat came after the industrial revolution e.g. factory workers, tradesmen etc. Paid taxes. Sans culottes: small business owners and urban workers.

Peasants: Rural workers who worked on estates of nobles. Largest population but had the least power. Paid high taxes and rented land off nobles.

Second Estate:

Second Estate:

Third Estate:
Bourgeoisie, san-culottes, peasants.
Third Estate:
Bourgeoisie, san-culottes, peasants.
Class structure:

Features of a revolution:

Ideology: set of ideas or beliefs that characterise a particular revolutionary movement.

Why do revolutions occur?
Revolutions occur when the people of a country or place want change. There different types of revolutions, these include: * Economic
* Political
* Social
* Religious
A revolution can be identified as two types of causes:
Preconditions: long term factors that generate dissatisfaction among the people. Precipitants: short term factors that commence the revolution.

Causes of the French revolution:
* Louis XVI was becoming unpopular with French society, he considered himself above the rest making him out of touch with the French society. * Lacked political management skills.
* Poor economic management.
* Didn’t want to be king at the time.
* His wife Marie Antoinette was a foreigner and disliked
Peasant discontent:
* Bad harvest resulted in peasants not having enough money to pay taxes * Rising taxes placed more pressure on the peasants
* Rising prices of necessary items such as bread.
* Unreliable taxation system that disadvantaged the peasants. * Had no voting rights, even though they were the biggest...
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