The main difference between caste and class societies is that in a class-based society there is social mobility.
(a) What is meant by the term social mobility? 
Social mobility refers to the upwards or downwards movement across the social hierarchy.
(b) Describe two ways in which a person can achieve a higher social position. 
If a person works hard and has strong willpower and willingness to move up the social ladder he/she will work very hard to achieve this and may end up getting a promotion for the efforts they have made. This will result in a higher status job and thus a higher social position.
An individual may be born in a working class family but this individual has exceptional talent. He/She may be very good in a specific field such as athletics, singing or other arts. The individual will be offered high salary jobs and will achieve a higher social position.
(c) Explain the main features of the caste system. 
The caste system is based on the Hindu religion which preaches that people are reborn. The form of life and the caste you are born into depends on your conduct in the previous life.
The levels of social hierarchy are called castes. Each caste is associated with a form of work. In India, the highest caste was the Brahmins who were priests and religious people, followed by the Kshatriya who were rulers and administrators.
The caste system is closed that is social mobility is not possible. Marriage is by endogamy to maintain the purity of each caste. Marriage to a person from a different class is strictly prohibited. The castes are rigidly separated. The caste system in India is officially banned by law today.
(d) Assess how much social mobility there is in modern societies.  Social mobility is measured in terms of inter-generational mobility (comparing father’s job with son at a similar period during life cycle) and intra-generational mobility (focusing on job changes in the careers of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document