1. Explain what is meant by the term ‘vocational’ education (2 marks) Vocational education refers to education connected to a career. It involves training and transmitting knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to pursue particular careers. This includes schemes and courses such as Youth Training Scheme, apprenticeships and NVQ and GNVQ courses. 2. Suggest three ways in which parentocracy operates in relation to ‘parental choice’ (6 marks) Parentocracy relates to the marketization of the education system after the 1988 Education Reform Act which is based on an ideology of parental choice. Ball, Bowe and Gerwitz examined parent choice and identified three types of parents when it comes to exercising choice. The first type are the privileged/skilled choosers who are more likely to come from middle class backgrounds as they are equipped with culture capital. They are highly motivated and skilled/knowledgeable about the education system and use this to fight for the best school for their children. Often this can involve moving house into a catchment area or paying for private education/ tutors. Next there are the semi-skilled chooses who are highly motivated to give their child the best education but lack the ability/cultural capital/contacts/finances to engage with the market. These parents are less likely to appeal if their child’s application is reject and will be unable to move house into a catchment area due to a lack of disposable income and limited knowledge of the system. Finally, Ball, Bowes and Gerwitz identified the disconnected choosers, like the semi-skilled choosers these are most likely to be working class as well as the ‘underclasses. Their parent choice involves a limited value of education – they are more likely to be concerned with their child’s happiness than their academic performance and thus will be more likely to choose the school based upon location and availability. 3. Outline some of the ways in which social policies may...
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