SOCIAL SCIENCE 101
(Society and Culture with Population Education)
Meaning of Social Stratification
When sociologists speak of stratification, they are referring to social inequality and social ranking, thus, stresses the differences among people. Is an institutionalized pattern of inequality in which social categories ranked on the basis of their access to scarce resources. Is the hierarchy arrangement and establishment of social categories that evolve into social group together with statuses and their corresponding roles. Is a system whereby people rank and evaluate each other as superior or inferior and, on the basis of such evaluations, unequally rewarded one another with wealth, authority, power and prestige. One result of each differentiation is the creation of a number of levels within society.
Social Stratification may be viewed may be viewed as a social structure, a social process, or a social problem.
As a social structure, it may be as the differentiation of statuses and social roles into ranked orders or a system of layered hierarchy of social relationship.
As a social process, it can be thought of as a division of a society into social categories that develop into social groups, which are cooperating, competing and/ or conflicting with one another for a social change.
As a social problem, it involves bitter feelings of discontent and of strong demands for equality or social justice.
Inequality- refers to the unequal distribution of scarce resources such as wealth, authority, power, and prestige.
Basic Principles of Stratification
1. It is universal in nature. Some form of stratification system is found within every human society. 2. The existence of social stratification system has many consequences for individual and groups. 3. Social stratification is a characteristic of society. It is not simply a function of individual differences. 4. Social stratification persists over generation. It transcend from one generation to another. 5. Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief.
Major types of Stratification system
Caste system-fixed and permanent, assigned to it at birth, without any chance of getting out. Class system- system of stratification based on economic position in which people are ranked based on achieve status. Estate system- the ownership of property and the exercise of power is monopolized by an elite who have total control over society resources. Importance of stratification
1. Through social stratification, men all over, dispel discrimination, stereotyping and prejudice. 2. Man will be exert great effort in competing with others to be able to attain a status that commands more power, more privileges and more opportunities. 3. Knowledge of social stratification may enable man to adapt to his social environment. 4. Improvement of man’s standard of living.
5. Effect economic development in a society.
6. Attainment of a harmonious and stable society.
Theoretical Analysis of stratification
1. The Structural Functional Analysis-the structural- functional approach recognizes that all societies maintain some form of social stratification, and therefore social stratification must have important functional consequences.
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore (1945)- proposed a theory of social stratification that remains influential and controversial up to this day. The Davis- Moore thesis asserts that some degree of social stratification actually serves society.
Inequality of members in a society based on their social classes is functional, necessary, and constructive. Functional- it serves an important function in society.
Necessary- it meets certain societal needs
Constructive- it is useful to all members of society.
Davis and Moore maintain that societies become more productive as they approach “meritocracy,” a system linking rewards to personal merit.
2. The Conflict Perspective View- this theory views...
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