Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that factors and processes within the school are the main cause of differences in the educational achievement of different social groups. A person’s social class, ethnicity and gender have a major contribution to how a student achieves in education. In this essay I aim to assess the internal factors into why they make such a difference in education rather than the individual’s intellectual capacity.
The first social group I will assess the internal factors of is social class. One factor affecting the educational achievement of different social groups is labelling. Gillbourn and Youdell found that teachers see children of a middle class background are more likely to enter higher level exams. This is of disadvantage of lower class students are teachers are making general assumptions on the intelligence of a pupil through their social class. This supports the theory that students of a higher class are more likely to achieve in education. Research shows that the majority of jobs of the higher brackets of earnings and social class such as solicitors, doctors etc. are taken up by citizens of a middle or upper class status. Coincidently, it is the vast majority of middle or upper class children who attend fee-paying private schools. Banding, setting and streaming also can affect the educational achievement of students. This is where students are split into different ability groups. Becker had found that lower class students were seen as less ‘ideal’ than middle class children and then found themselves in a lower set because of this. This then can create a self-fulfilling prophecy for these students due a lowering in expectations of them. These are some internal factors affecting the achievement of students in a different social class.
In evaluation, the Marxist perspective have the opinion that it is not the teachers individual decisions of class division but that they are working in a system that...
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